Jungheinrich knows how important it is to you that your data is handled confidentially. We would therefore like to assure you that we comply with all the statutory requirements. Below you will find extensive information about the handling of your data.
As the publisher of this site, Jungheinrich knows how important it is to you that your personal data is handled confidentially. We would, therefore, like to assure you that we comply with all the statutory requirements for data privacy and data security. In the following, we will provide you with detailed information on the nature, scope and purpose for which personal data is used within our online offering and the websites associated therewith.
You can visit our website at any time without providing details regarding your person. You can prevent the use of tracking and marketing scripts and their cookies and web beacons by only permitting cookies of the category “necessary”. For information about our cookies, visit this link.
When you access the website of Jungheinrich AG, various information is exchanged between your end device and our servers. More information is provided below, in the section covering the purpose of data processing.
In accordance with the requirements of the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), you have various rights that you can assert against us. These include the right to file an objection against selected types of data processing, particularly data processing for advertising purposes. More information on this is given in the 'Your rights' section of this page.
If you have any questions regarding our data privacy policies, you can contact our corporate data protection officer at any time. The relevant contact data is provided in the following section.
Corporate Data Protection Officer
The corporate data protection officer of Jungheinrich AG can be contacted at the above address, FAO the corporate data protection officer, or at email@example.com.
We process users' personal data solely in compliance with the relevant data privacy provisions. This means that user data is processed only where legally permitted – i.e. where data processing is legally prescribed, consent has been provided on the part of the user or on the basis of our legitimate interests pursuant to Art. 6(1)(f) GDPR.
Personal data such as your name, postal address, telephone number or e-mail address is not recorded unless you provide this information voluntarily, e.g. in the context of a newsletter subscription, an application or an enquiry.
We will only use this data for marketing purposes if you have given your prior consent or – insofar as statutory regulations permit this – you have not raised a corresponding objection.
Jungheinrich products can be ordered via Jungheinrich Profishop. The data processing conducted in this context is described in the Profishop data privacy statement.
When you visit our website, the browser used on your end device automatically sends information to the servers of our website/application, and this information is stored temporarily in so-called log files.
The following information is collected without any action on your part and stored until it is automatically deleted:
The legal basis for processing the IP address is Art. 6(1)(f) GDPR. Our legitimate interest results from the data collection purposes listed below. Please note that the collected data does not give us any indication as to your identity, nor do we use it to draw any conclusions about your person.
The IP address of your end device and the data listed above are used by us to:
Further information can be found at:
Our newsletter provides you with the latest news and offers from Jungheinrich. If you enter your e-mail address under "Newsletter", click the "Subscribe" button and then confirm your subscription via the link that is subsequently sent to your entered e-mail address (double opt-in), we will process and use your e-mail address to send you the requested newsletter on a regular basis. Subscribing to the newsletter is voluntary, and data is processed on the basis of your consent within the meaning of Art. 6(1)(a) GDPR.
To send out the newsletter, we employ the internet-based services of Inxmail GmbH, Wentzingerstr. 17, 79106 Freiburg, Germany, for the automatic dispatch of personalised e-mails. For this purpose, we have concluded a contract with the service provider on the basis of Art. 28 GDPR, in which the service provider undertakes to process user data solely in accordance with our instructions and to comply with the applicable data protection provisions. Any forwarding of data to third parties within the meaning of the GDPR is excluded.
You have the right and the opportunity to unsubscribe from the newsletter at any time. A corresponding "Unsubscribe" link is provided at the end of every newsletter. Alternatively, you can unsubscribe on our website via the "Newsletter cancellation" link in the footer or send your request to unsubscribe by e-mail to firstname.lastname@example.org.
When we are contacted (via the contact form or e-mail), the information provided by the user is processed in order to handle the contact request and process it in accordance with Art. 6(1)(b) GDPR (to carry out pre-contractual measures).
The user information may be saved in our customer relationship management (CRM) system or a comparable means of enquiry organisation.
In Germany, we utilise the CRM system "SAP Hybris Cloud for Customer" and "SAP CRM" of the provider SAP on the basis of our legitimate interests pursuant to Art. 6(1)(f) GDPR (efficient and rapid processing of user enquiries). For this purpose, we have concluded a contract with the service provider on the basis of Art. 28 GDPR, in which the service provider undertakes to process user data solely in accordance with our instructions and to maintain data protection levels in keeping with EU regulations.
Jungheinrich AG welcomes your interest in working for our company and looks forward to receiving your online application.
In this section, we will explain to you how we process data as part of a job application process – in accordance with Art. 13 GDPR.
By accepting our data privacy declaration for our online application process, you agree that the Jungheinrich Group may save and process your data for the purpose of undergoing an application procedure.
During your online application, we collect and process the personal application data listed below:
Purpose of data processing / transfer
The personal data provided by you as part of a concrete application process is used solely for carrying out the application procedure. Access to your data is granted to the relevant employees of the Jungheinrich Group who are involved in the personnel selection process. The parties involved in the selection process can be employed by different companies of the Jungheinrich Group. As a result, your application data may be transferred within the Group as necessary. Any further use or forwarding of your application data is excluded.
Your data will be transmitted in an encrypted manner and then stored in a database. Jungheinrich will save and process your data in accordance with the applicable data privacy regulations. Your data will always be kept confidential. All personal details that we collect and process as part of a job application are protected by technical and organisational methods against unauthorised access and manipulation
If you have applied for a specific position that has already been filled, or if we consider you to be equally or better suited to a different position, or if you submitted a speculative application, we will forward your application within our Group so that you may be considered for future application procedures – provided that you have consented to this processing of your data.
Deletion of data / revocation of consent
Should you withdraw your application, your data will be deleted immediately. If you wish to object to the collection, processing and use of your personal data within the scope of the consent given as part of the application process, please email: email@example.com
As part of your application, we ask that you consent to the following:
Your rights as a data subject
As well as your right to revoke any consent you have given to us, you are afforded the following additional rights where the relevant statutory requirements are met:
If you have any questions regarding data protection, you can send an e-mail to firstname.lastname@example.org. You can also address your questions to our corporate data protection officer, Mr Frank Jastrob, at Frank.Jastrob@jungheinrich.de. Further information is provided in this data privacy statement.
Processing of investor/shareholder data
Categories of processed personal data and data sources
When handling investor-related matters, Jungheinrich AG processes the following categories of personal data:
Purpose and legal basis of data processing
We process your data for the purposes stipulated in the German Stock Corporation Act (AktG) and other laws, in particular to conduct our general meetings as well as to ensure appropriate communication with you as our shareholder. Jungheinrich AG processes only the personal data that is required to fulfil the aforementioned purposes. This data processing is permitted in accordance with Art. 6(1)(c) GDPR.
Disclosure of personal data
As a rule, your personal data is not transferred to third parties. In exceptional cases, we will grant third parties access to this data if they have been commissioned by Jungheinrich AG to deliver services relating to the management of investor matters. These may be auditors, consultants, banks, investor relations service providers and general meeting agencies. The scope of the personal data provided to these service providers is restricted to that required to deliver the relevant service.
The data specified above will be erased when it is no longer required to fulfil legal obligations and no statutory retention period applies. As a rule, data collected within the context of a general meeting is subject to a three-year retention period.
Controller / data protection officer / your rights
Further details regarding Jungheinrich AG as a responsible body, our data protection officer and your data protection rights are provided at the relevant points in our data privacy statement.
However, you can configure your browser such that no cookies are stored on your computer or such that a message always appears before any new cookie is created. Note that you may not be able to use all the features of our website if you completely deactivate the creation of cookies. The storage period for cookies depends on their individual use and is not the same in all cases. The individual storage periods for cookies can be found here.
In accordance with Art. 6(1)(f) GDPR (legitimate interest in analysing the success of our online activities), we use the "jh_medium" cookie to store general "channel information" concerning your visit to our website. For this purpose, we use a script that we have developed in-house to record the source of your visit so that we can evaluate the success of these channels (example value: "SEO"). The cookie currently has a maximum lifespan of 6 months. This time can vary according to your browser and may be shorter. No personal data is stored in this cookie. In particular, no IP addresses or user IDs are stored, nor is any website usage behaviour analysed.
If you consented to the "statistics" category via our cookie banner or cookie consent tool (consent according to Art. 6(1)(a) GDPR), we make use of Google Analytics on our website. This is a web analysis service provided by Google LLC (formerly Google Inc.), 1600 Amphitheatre Parkway, Mountain View, CA 94043, USA. The responsible service provider for the European Union is Google Ireland Limited, Gordon House, Barrow Street, Dublin 4, Ireland – hereafter referred to as "Google".
We use Google Analytics primarily to pursue our legitimate interest in the statistical analysis of our website and online activities as well as to support the needs-based design and ongoing optimisation of our web presence. To this end, we have concluded a commissioned data processing agreement with Google in which comprehensive data protection is ensured by means of standard contractual clauses.
In this context, cookies are used, pseudonymous user profiles created and information collected. This information includes the following:
The collected information regarding your usage of our website is combined with a pseudonymous ID (clientID) and transferred to Google servers via an encrypted connection (SSL, HTTPS) and subsequently stored.
We only use Google Analytics with active IP anonymisation. This means that the user's IP address is truncated by Google within member states of the European Union or in other countries party to the Agreement on the European Economic Area. Only in exceptional cases is the full IP address transferred to a Google server in the USA before being truncated. In addition to Google LLC, with headquarters in California, USA, the transmitted and stored data may also be accessed by US authorities in individual cases and under specific legal conditions.
Google uses this information on our behalf in order to analyse the usage of our website by visitors, to measure the success of campaigns (e.g. via the Google Ads advertising platform), to compile reports regarding the activities on our website and to deliver additional services related to the usage of this website and general internet use. During this process, pseudonymous user profiles can be created from the processed data.
We have configured Google Analytics such that the transmitted data, which is linked to cookies or clientIDs, is automatically deleted after 14 months, at which point only aggregated data remains. Any data the retention period of which has been reached is automatically deleted by Google once per month.
In general, users can prevent the saving of cookies or running of scripts such as Google Analytics by making corresponding settings in their browser software or by using appropriate plug-ins. In this case, however, users may no longer be able to use all features and functions of this website in full.
If you want to prevent Google Analytics from running, you can do so at any time and with future effect by one of the following methods:
Additional information as well as Google data protection provisions and settings can be found here:
If you consented to the "statistics" category via our cookie banner or cookie consent tool (consent according to Art. 6(1)(a) GDPR), we may also make use of Google Optimize on our website. Google Optimize is a web analysis and optimisation service as well as an extension/sub-service of Google Analytics (see section on Google Analytics). Once again, the provider is Google LLC (formerly Google Inc.), 1600 Amphitheatre Parkway, Mountain View, CA 94043, USA. The responsible service provider for the European Union is Google Ireland Limited, Gordon House, Barrow Street, Dublin 4, Ireland – hereafter referred to as "Google".
We use Google Optimize in combination with Google Analytics to pursue our legitimate interest in the statistical analysis of our website as well as to support the needs-based design and ongoing optimisation of our site.
For additional information as well as Google data protection provisions and settings, refer to the section on Google Analytics, where you will also find information on objecting to these Google services.
If you consented to the “statistics” and "marketing" categories via our cookie banner or cookie consent tool (consent according to Art. 6(1)(a) GDPR), we also activate the Google Analytics extension Google Signals on our website. Once again, the provider is Google LLC (formerly Google Inc.), 1600 Amphitheatre Parkway, Mountain View, CA 94043, USA. The responsible service provider for the European Union is Google Ireland Limited, Gordon House, Barrow Street, Dublin 4, Ireland – hereafter referred to as "Google".
With Google Signals, Google Analytics (see section on Google Analytics) records additional information such as demographic data and interest categories for Google users, who have activated personalised ads in their Google settings. Google links this data with individual signals to enable cross-device analyses. However, Google Analytics only makes this data available in anonymised form as aggregated reports, which enable an analysis of general behavioural patterns. We are unable to personally identify you on this basis.
We use Google Signals to better understand the digital journey of our users and to provide personalised ads to users who have previously visited our website (retargeting). To this end, special target groups or Google audiences are created within Google Analytics, which can then be used as remarketing lists via Google's advertising platform Google Ads and, if necessary, DoubleClick cookies in order to provide cross-device, personalised advertising to selected target groups. In this case, the ads can be displayed in Google's advertising network, which includes Google Search, YouTube, other Google products as well as third-party websites that display ads from Google customers.
For this purpose, Google may use the DoubleClick cookie on websites of the Google advertising network and for specific Google services to assist Google Ads customers and publishers with the placement and management of ads on the web. When you open a website and display or click on an ad placed via websites of the Google advertising network, a DoubleClick cookie may be stored in your browser. The DoubleClick cookie ID assigned to your browser is the same as that used when visiting websites on which DoubleClick advertising programs are used. If your browser already has a DoubleClick cookie, no further DoubleClick cookie should be stored.
If you object to the use of Google Signals, you can revoke your previously granted consent for marketing purposes in our cookie consent manager and deactivate personalised ads in your personal Google settings: https://adssettings.google.com/
Further information on Google Signals and Google's data protection provisions can be found here:
If you consented to the "marketing" category via our cookie banner or cookie consent tool (consent according to Art. 6(1)(a) GDPR), we make use of the "Facebook pixel" tool of the social network Facebook on our website. The "Facebook pixel" is operated by Meta Platforms Inc., 1601 S. California Ave, Palo Alto, CA 94304, USA or, if you are based in the EU, by Meta Platforms Ireland Ltd., 4 Grand Canal Square, Grand Canal Harbour, Dublin 2, Ireland ("Facebook"). This also allows Facebook to use the following data for its own purposes:
Information on the processing of your data by or via Facebook can be found at https://www.facebook.com/about/privacy.
Purpose of data processing
We use the "Facebook pixel" based on the aforementioned consent pursuant to the overriding legitimate interests of the controller (Art. 6(1)(f) GDPR) for the following purposes:
No "advanced data matching" takes place and no e-mail addresses are uploaded to Facebook (known as "custom audiences from file").
Right to object / revoking consent
By using the "Facebook pixel", we also want to ensure that our Facebook ads match the potential interests of users and are not perceived as annoying. If you do not agree with this usage and/or wish to object to it, you can do so by adjusting your Facebook settings accordingly at: https://www.facebook.com/settings?tab=ads. Moreover, you can revoke your previously granted consent to the use of the "Facebook pixel" at any time and with future effect by selecting "Change your consent" or "Revoke your consent" under "Cookies" at the bottom of our website.
If you consented to the "marketing" category via our cookie banner or cookie consent tool (consent according to Art. 6(1)(a) GDPR), we make use of the "LinkedIn Insight Tag" of the social network LinkedIn on our website. The LinkedIn Insight Tag is operated by LinkedIn Corporation, 2029 Stierlin Court, Mountain View, CA 94043, USA or, if you are based in the EU, by LinkedIn Ireland Unlimited Company, Wilton Place, Dublin 2, Ireland. This also allows LinkedIn to use the following data for its own purposes:
The data collected via the LinkedIn Insight Tag is encrypted and anonymised within a period of 7 days. LinkedIn does not share any personal data with the website owner, but instead provides only summarised reports regarding the website target group and ad performance.
Information on the processing of your data by or via LinkedIn can be found at https://www.linkedin.com/legal/privacy-policy.
Purpose of data processing
We use the "LinkedIn Insight Tag" based on the aforementioned consent pursuant to the overriding legitimate interests of the controller (Art. 6(1)(f) GDPR) for the following purposes:
Right to object / revoking consent
By using the "LinkedIn Insight Tag", we also want to ensure that our LinkedIn ads match the potential interests of users and are not perceived as annoying. If you do not agree with this usage and wish to object to it, you can do so by adjusting your LinkedIn settings accordingly at: https://www.linkedin.com/psettings/guest-controls/retargeting-opt-out.
Moreover, you can revoke your previously granted consent to the use of the "LinkedIn Insight Tag" at any time and with future effect by selecting "Change your consent" or "Revoke your consent" under "Cookies" at the bottom of our website.
Based on your consent (Art. 6(1)(a) GDPR) or on our legitimate interest (Art. 6(1)(f) GDPR), we may integrate services and content of third parties on our website. These services include social media functions, videos, map services, CAPTCHA services, tag management services and cookie consent tools. Information on how we use the individual services is provided below.
If, as part of our ad campaign, you complete a form ("LinkedIn Lead Gen Form") on the social network LinkedIn and transmit it to us, you will provide us with personal data which we will use for standard advertising purposes – in particular, to contact you by phone and to provide you with information about our products that may be of interest to you. Information on the service provider LinkedIn and on LinkedIn's data privacy statement is provided in the section above ("LinkedIn"). In transmitting the form to us, you consent to the usage of the transmitted data (Art. 6(1)(a) GDPR).
You have the right to revoke this consent at any time without stating reasons. To do so, please send an e-mail to email@example.com. Once declared, this revocation will affect the permissibility of the processing of your personal data.
Based on Art. 6(1)(f) GDPR (legitimate interest in the secure operation of our website and prevention of spam), we make use of the Google Invisible reCAPTCHA service. The provider is Google LLC, 1600 Amphitheatre Parkway, Mountain View, CA 94043 USA, hereafter referred to as "Google".
The service checks various information in order to establish whether a real human or automated process is using or accessing the website (which is particularly important in the case of online forms). This check involves the transmission of the relevant IP address to Google along with any other data potentially required by Google for the Invisible reCAPTCHA service. In individual cases, Google will also use image tests to establish whether entries are being made by a real human or automated programs.
Further information on Invisible reCAPTCHA and Google's data protection provisions can be found here:
On our website, we use Google Maps to display our location and create route directions. This is a service provided by Google LLC, 1600 Amphitheatre Parkway, Mountain View, CA 94043 USA, hereafter referred to as "Google".
To allow specific fonts to be displayed on our website, a connection to the Google server in the USA is established when our website is opened. If you access the Google Maps component integrated in our website, Google will save a cookie on your end device via your internet browser. To display our location and create route directions, your user settings and data are processed. We cannot exclude the possibility of Google employing servers in the USA for this purpose.
The legal basis in this case is your consent in accordance with Art. 6(1)(a) GDPR. The integration of this service subsequently also supports our legitimate interest in optimising the functionality of our website.
The connection thus established to Google allows Google to identify from which website your request originates and to which IP address the route description is to be transmitted. If you do not agree with this processing of data, you can choose to block the installation of cookies by making corresponding settings in your internet browser. Further details are provided above under "Cookies".
In addition, Google Maps and the information obtained via Google Maps are used in accordance with the Google terms of service and the additional terms of service for Google Maps. Further details are also available at https://adssettings.google.com/authenticated and https://policies.google.com/privacy.
Based on our legitimate interest (i.e. interest in the analysis, optimisation and efficient operation of our online presence, and as a means of fulfilling transparency and legal obligations within the meaning of Art. 6(1)(f) GDPR), this website makes use of Google Tag Manager. This is a tag management service provided by Google LLC (formerly Google Inc.), 1600 Amphitheatre Parkway, Mountain View, CA 94043, USA. The responsible service provider for the European Union is Google Ireland Limited, Gordon House, Barrow Street, Dublin 4, Ireland – hereafter referred to as "Google".
Further information on Google Tag Manager and Google data protection is available via the following links:
Users have the option of preventing the future transmission of statistical and marketing tags from Google Tag Manager. To do so, the user must click on this opt-out link in order to set a Google Tag Manager deactivation cookie in their internet browser. This blocks any future integration via Google Tag Manager for this browser only, and not for other browsers and/or end devices. No existing cookies are deleted. Moreover, we expressly point out that users may no longer be able to use all features and functions of the website in this case. If you delete all cookies in your browser, you will have to set the opt-out cookie again.
Based on our legitimate interest (Art. 6(1)(f) GDPR) in the information of our users and as a means of meeting our transparency and legal obligations, this website uses the cookie consent manager/tool CookieBot. The provider is Cybot A/S, Havnegade 39, 1058 Copenhagen, Denmark.
The CookieBot service allows us to provide you with comprehensive information regarding the use of analysis and ad services as well as their cookies and to obtain and manage your consent to data processing. In particular, the following data is collected:
The data is then stored by CookieBot as proof of the user's consent. The key allows the user's consent to be checked retrospectively. The key and the corresponding consent status are stored in the "CookieConsent" cookie for a period of 12 months. This ensures that the user's settings remain intact for all future page requests on our website without the user having make a new selection upon each visit.
Further information on the data protection provisions of CookieBot or Cybot A/S can be found here: https://www.cookiebot.com/de/privacy-policy/
The overview created by CookieBot for our website can be found here.
If you consented to the "marketing" category via our cookie banner or cookie consent tool (consent according to Art. 6(1)(a) GDPR), we may use functions of the YouTube service to display and play back videos on our website. These functions are provided by YouTube, LLC 901 Cherry Ave. San Bruno, CA 94066, USA. Additional information is provided in the YouTube privacy policies.
In this case, the enhanced data protection mode is used which, according to the provider, ensures that user information is only stored during video playback. When the user initiates playback of embedded YouTube videos,
YouTube may employ cookies or other storage technologies to collect information regarding user behaviour. According to YouTube, this is done, among other things, to record video statistics, improve usability and prevent misuse. Independently of any playback of the embedded videos, the integration of the YouTube service may also result in a connection being established to the Google network "DoubleClick", which can trigger additional data processing operations over which Jungheinrich AG has no influence.
Further details regarding the use of YouTube, data protection provisions and setting options can be found here:
To enable remote access to our press conference on financial statements, Jungheinrich offers a corresponding video transmission service. For this transmission, we employ the services of the provider Vimeo, Inc., 555 West 18th Street, New York, New York 10011, USA.
Jungheinrich does not obtain any personal data as a result of the data processing.
For technical reasons, use of this video function requires access to Vimeo servers. With regard to the associated use of data from your browser or end device, we refer you to the relevant data privacy notices of the provider or of the controller responsible for this aspect of data processing. Vimeo's data privacy policies can be found at: https://vimeo.com/privacy
If you consented to the "marketing" category via our cookie banner or cookie consent tool (consent according to Art. 6(1)(a) GDPR), we employ product guides on our website to provide users with online product advice, thereby facilitating the product selection process and allowing us to offer improved customer service. The provider of the product guides is excentos Software GmbH, Reiterweg 1, 14469 Potsdam, Germany.
The product guides record the activities of the user, such as selected response options and navigation activities in the product guide. This usage data is permanently stored in a web analysis system operated by excentos. No IP addresses are stored in the web analysis system and all stored data is anonymised. In addition, the product guides or the necessary server services collect the IP address and activities of the user based on a balancing of interests in order to protect against cyber-attacks. This precautionary measure is essential for us to be able to offer our services. The data is retained only temporarily in order to identify potential attack patterns. Thereafter, the IP addresses incl. all log data are fully erased. The user activities during a session with the product guide are also recorded. This is necessary for the basic function of the product guide, incl. its interactions and generated recommendations. This data is merely held in the memory but is not stored persistently.
By using the product guides as well the advice, search and chatbot systems provided on this website, you declare your consent to these conditions.
When using the product guides integrated in this website, you can prevent the collection of your data by the excentos web analysis system and view or change the status by clicking the following link. This sets an opt-out cookie, which prevents the collection of your data on future visits to this website. Alternatively, you can revoke your previous consent for marketing purposes, in which case the excentos product guides will no longer be loaded on our website.
A transfer of data to third parties only takes place within the scope of the legal requirements and only to the extent described in data privacy statement. We will only transfer data to third parties where this is necessary, for example, for contractual reasons on the basis of Art. 6(1)(b) GDPR or to support our legitimate interests in accordance with Art. 6(1)(f) GDPR, specifically the efficient and effective operation of our business.
If we employ subcontractors to provide our services, we take suitable legal precautions as well as appropriate technical and organisational measures to ensure the protection of personal data in accordance with the relevant statutory provisions.
With the exception of the processing described in this data privacy statement, we do not pass your data on to recipients based outside the European Union or the European Economic Area.
As well as your right to revoke any consent you have given to us, you are afforded the following additional rights where the relevant statutory requirements are met:
If the user does not want Jungheinrich AG to actively use data for internal purposes, the user is entitled to object to this usage and processing at any time in accordance with Art. 21(2-4) GDPR. The user can do so by sending a corresponding e-mail to firstname.lastname@example.org. The special case of legally prescribed data blocking instead of data deletion in accordance with Art. 17-19 GDPR remains unaffected.
All personal data, including payment data, is transmitted using industry-standard SSL (Secure Sockets Layer) encryption. SSL is a secure, tried-and-tested standard which is also used in online banking, for example. You can identify a secure SSL connection by the prefix "https" (i.e. https://...) in the address bar of your browser, or by the padlock symbol in the lower part of your browser window.
Furthermore, we employ appropriate technical and security measures to protect the personal data we have stored against manipulation, partial or complete loss and unauthorised third-party access. Our security measures are continuously enhanced in line with technological advancement.